Internal Migration: Causes, Patterns, and Consequences

To be determined
To be determined

Session Code: SOM7
Session Format: Regular
Session Language: English
Research Cluster Affiliation: Sociology of Migration
Session Categories: Regular Session

Although migration within a country is not as dramatic as cross-border immigration, it is an important life event that has various personal and social ramifications. There is also much more domestic migration than international immigration overall. This session attempts to examine the patterns and ramifications of internal migration from a sociological or multidisciplinary perspective. Specifically, it will investigate what factors shape individuals’ migrating intentions and destinations, how migration impacts individuals' lives and health, and how internal migration shapes and changes a society overall. This session covers internal migration in both Canada and other countries. Tags: Development and Globalization, Health and Care, Migration / Immigration

Organizer: Min Zhou, University of Victoria

Presentations

Karen Foster, Dalhousie University; Rachel McLay, Dalhousie University

Job Satisfaction, Priorities, and Migration Intentions in Atlantic Canada

This paper tests correlations between how satisfied people are with different aspects of their jobs, how important different aspects of work are to them (e.g., income, commute time, challenge), and whether or not they envision leaving their communities in the future. Using data from an original survey of over 1200 Atlantic Canadians in rural, urban and suburban communities conducted in Spring 2019, we ask if there are links between job attributes and migration intentions, and whether other factors, such as education, gender, age and so on, affect these links. Our analysis helps deepen understandings of what constitutes good work, and how more subjective dimensions of job quality (not just employment rates) might impact internal migration, and rural outmigration in particular.

Cary Wu, York University; Jagdeep Heir, York University

Childhood Victimization and internal migration in Canada

A growing body of literature has highlighted the importance of taking a life course perspective in understanding why people migrate. In this article, we consider how childhood victimization might affect internal migration among Canadians and why.  Analyzing data from Canadian General Social Survey (2014), we generate three main findings. First, childhood victimization significantly increases the odds of moving away from home province. Second, while there is no significant difference in the effect between sexual and physical abuse, type of abuser matters, and parental victimization during childhood has the strongest effect. Third, childhood victimization leads to higher fear of crime, lower sense of belonging, higher perception of being unsafe, lower general well-being, but these factors explain little away the effect of childhood victimization on emigration. The findings of this research demonstrate that people’s migratory behavior is deeply rooted in their life course. Future research can explore further the specific processes that underlie the long-term impact of childhood victimization on emigration.

Saba Nuzhat, Eastern University, Bangladesh

The Rainy Challenge in Rohingya Refugee Camp: A Crisis in Water and Sanitation

The Rohingya of Myanmar are a severely persecuted minority group of stateless people; a million of them took refuge in southeastern Bangladesh in order to protect themselves from ethnic cleansing. Even though much progress has been made in the provisioning of water sanitation and hygiene services to the large influx of Rohingya refugees, quite a few crucial challenges persist. Poor quality of water source, required alteration of water sources or latrines, finding suitable land for solid waste management and the growing pressure to provide WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) services to the host and arriving refuges are notable consideration. Together with the advent of rainy season, the ongoing challenges in safe water, sanitation and hygiene raise the real possibility of a resurgence of severe acute waterborne diseases which are endemic in Bangladesh. This ethnographic study aims to examine the overall condition of water sources and latrine systems and its management; as well as how and in what magnitude the upcoming monsoon season poses threat for the contamination of waterborne diseases to the susceptible Rohingya refuges in Ukhia. In addition, this study wants to evaluate the preparedness taken in the Rohingya camps for WASH services by authority in the preceding year (2019) of monsoon. The data will be collected by using qualitative research methods including:in depth interview of 20 Rohingya refuges (both adult males and females), one FGD (Focus Group Discussion) with community health workers, as well as several observational sessions at the Rohingya refugee camps lcated in Ukhia. This study intends to explore the subjective experiences of the Rohingya refugees who face difficulties in accessing safe water sources or latrine systems. It also aims to understand that in what manner they are preparing themselves for the upcoming (2020) monsoon season to cope with the challenges. Furthermore, the present study accentuates the importance to carry out more researches on the health state of Rohingya with a special reference to WASH and waterborne diseases exclusively in the approaching monsoon season in Bangladesh.

Min Zhou, University of Victoria; Wei Guo, Nanjing University

Fertility Intentions of Having a Second Child among the Floating Population in China: Effects of Socioeconomic Factors and Home Ownership

The adoption of the universal two-child policy in late 2015, replacing the one-child policy, signals a dramatic shift in China’s fertility policy. The 2016 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey (MDMS) provides a nationally representative dataset that enables us to reveal, for the first time, the socioeconomic correlates of fertility intentions of having a second child among China’s large migrant population. Using a multilevel analytical framework, we find that male, younger, and more affluent migrants, those from minority ethnic groups, individuals migrating from rural areas, those whose first child is a girl, those at 5 years after having the first child, and migrants living in economically less developed cities are more likely to express the intention to have a second child. Moreover, our study establishes a correlation between home ownership and fertility intentions. Migrants who own their own home in the destination city express lower intentions to have a second child, compared with those who are renting. We suggest a proposition about this counterintuitive relationship between home ownership and lower fertility intentions: home ownership and childbearing compete for the limited financial resources of migrants who are socioeconomically disadvantaged in China.