Measures and indicators of immigrant integration

To be determined
To be determined

Session Code: SOM8C
Session Format: Regular
Session Language: English
Research Cluster Affiliation: Sociology of Migration
Session Categories: Regular Session

Integration is a multidimensional concept. This session considers various measures and indicators of the adaptation and integration among diverse immigrant and refugee groups. Tags: Migration / Immigration

Organizer: Cary Wu, York University; Chair: Cary Wu, York University


Jihad Kamal OTHMAN, University of Manitoba

Predictors of Immigrant Canadians' Self-Rated Health

This study tries to explore the connections between immigration “as a choice we made to live somewhere different” and health which changes throughout the process of immigration and resettlement. I try to explain the most significant factors on Canadian immigrants’ self-rated health through making comparisons between genders, marital statuses, range of years living in Canada, different education backgrounds, smoking, and regular exercise habits. Multinomial regression analysis is used to determine the chances of falling into different categories of self-rated health. The General Social Survey 2016 data is used for the analysis. The study finds that the longer immigrants were in Canada, the lower their self-rated health gets, and those immigrants who have spent their lives for 47 or more have better health rates compare to those who are recent. While smoking and workout are known to be positively correlated with the better health rates, in this study, however, neither of them had a significant effect on falling into a specific category except the less chances of falling into high self-rated health rather than the low for those who do exercise by 0.55 compare to those who do not exercise.

Parveen Nangia, Laurentian University

Social Integration of Immigrants in Canada

Social integration provides a sense of connection to others and belonging to the community. It is equally important for immigrants and the host communities. The objective of this study is to assess the level of social integration of immigrants in Canadian society. It also examines how social integration of immigrants changes over time and which factors contribute to successful integration. This paper uses data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2015-16, which collected information from nearly 110,000 individuals. This study compares social integration of recent immigrants, established immigrants and non-immigrants. Logistic regression is used to predict social integration of the three groups. Ten indicators of social integration are used, viz. emotional security, trustworthy relations, counting on someone in an emergency, depending on someone for help, enjoyment of social activities, talking to someone for important decisions, recognition of skills, sharing of beliefs, emotional bonds, and admiration of abilities. Findings of the study reveal that on all these indicators, except for sharing of beliefs, there is no significant difference between recent and established immigrants. However, a significant difference between established immigrants and non-immigrants on all these indicators indicates that immigrants have a lower level of social integration.  Recent immigrants are similar to established immigrants on the scale of social integration, but established immigrants have a significantly lower level of social integration than non-immigrants. Results of the logistic regression show that selected predictors of social integration have different effect on integration of recent immigrants, established immigrants and non-immigrants. 

Sagi Ramaj, University of Toronto

Neighborhood Effects and the Economic Outcomes of Immigrants in Same-Sex Partnerships

Lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) immigrants report high levels of social isolation and neighborhood detachment compared to their heterosexual and/or native-born peers. This is a cause for concern given that neighborhoods are theorised to influence economic outcomes through being sources of networks, resources, and support. Using master-file data from the 2016 Canadian long-form census, I investigate 1) whether neighborhood composition (in terms of socio-economic disadvantage, coethnics, and couple-type [same-sex or different-sex]) explain the disparities in labor market activity between immigrants in same-sex couples and their peers in different-sex couples and/or who are native-born; 2) whether neighborhoods effect the economic outcomes of immigrants in same-sex couples differently than they do the general sample; and 3) how gender influences the above relationships. Group differences in neighborhood composition somewhat explain the labor market gaps between immigrants in same-sex couples and their peers, but divergences remain, as do important gender differences in these relationships. The extent to which neighborhood effects for immigrants in same-sex couples are equivalent to the general sample effects differ depending on the neighborhood characteristic, the labor market activity category, and gender.

Katherine MacCormac, Western University

Measuring the emotional impacts of childhood migration on the social integration and development of trust among Canada's immigrant population

When it comes to migration, recent research indicates that trust is an integral factor in the successful integration of immigrants (Wilkes and Wu, 2019). The ability to form social bonds of trust not only impacts how immigrants see themselves post-migration, but also the extent to which they are able to successfully integrate into the social fabric of the host society. For many immigrants, trust is impacted by feelings of ‘otherness’ which are either self-perceived or learned through social interaction (Bilodeau and White, 2015). In the case of Canadian education, multilingual immigrant youth often face the added pressure of developing trust within a system framed by a homogenous narrative of Canada as a bilingual-bicultural country. For these youth, successful integration often means learning to live between worlds while splitting allegiances between nation of origin and the host society (Mady, 2012; Cummins, 2014). Using retrospective data from a critical narrative inquiry, this paper measures the emotional impacts of this process on how Canadian multilingual youth negotiate relationships of trust across different social spheres throughout their life course. Findings indicate that having to live between worlds leads to feelings of social isolation and ambivalence in adulthood resulting in a fragmented sense of self.